In Vitro Evaluation of a Biomedical-Grade Bilayer Chitosan Porous Skin Regenerating Template as a Potential Dermal Scaffold in Skin Tissue Engineering
Chitosan is a copolymer of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. A bilayer chitosan porous skin regenerating template (CPSRT) has been developed for skin tissue engineering. The pore size of the CPSRT was assessed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro cytocompatibility of the CPSRT was tested on primary human epidermal keratinocyte (pHEK) cultures by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and skin irritation by western blot analysis of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretions. The ability of the CPSRT to support cell ingrowth was evaluated by seeding primary human dermal fibroblasts (pHDFs) on the scaffold, staining the cells with live/dead stain, and imaging the construct by confocal microscopy (CLSM). The CPSRT with pore sizes ranging from 50 to 150 μm was cytocompatible because it did not provoke the additional production of IL-8 and TNF-α by pHEK cultures. Cultured pHDFs were able to penetrate the CPSRT and had increased in number on day 14. In conclusion, the CPSRT serves as an ideal template for skin tissue engineering.